Sunday, May 24, 2020

American History The Great Depression - 1688 Words

Bailey Jorgensen American history The Great Depression The Great Depression The Great Depression was a terrible time for people in the United States. With the stock market crash, there were many people without jobs, homes, or they didn’t have anything. Many Americans were left with nothing more than the clothes on their back and their family. Many banks and businesses had to close because on the stock market crash. Even though these times in the thirties seemed to be hard for most people, the American people did not just sit around and do nothing. Many new fads and activities were made up in this time and many of these fads are around today. The times were hard, but not everything was bad for the American people and, in the end, everything would be better than it was before the Great Depression happened. The Great Depression was and is a huge part of history and a great one to learn about. This paper will talk about what the Great Depression is and how it happened, how life was for people of the Great Depression including in the dust bowl, and life after the Great Depression. The Great Depression, according to the book The Great Depression written by Elaine Landau, was the period of time that began in 1929 and ended in the early 1940’s. The book also states that â€Å"most people trace the start of the Great Depression to October 29, 1929†(Landau, 2007). This day was known black Tuesday. On this day, the stock market crashed. Most people who were crushed were those whoShow MoreRelatedAmerican History : The Great Depression1411 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the course of American history, many events arose which have transpired variations in the lifestyles of American citizens, and everyday life. In particular, in the 1930s the Great Depression transpired as a result of the stock market crash which led to an immense widespread of unemployment of numerous Americans. Many primary sources contributed to the hardships people have faced. To gain an understanding on how the Great Depression happened, one has to imitate the history of the events thatRead MoreAmerican History : The Great Depression Essay1788 Words   |  8 PagesButler Mr. David Modern US History 28 November 2016 The Great Depression The Great Depression was a time in American history that not only affected the United States deeply, but also the rest of the world (Irwin). Jobs were tough to come by, the stock market was poor, and the American people lacked strong government leadership for a time. In Europe, countries recovering from the great losses of World War I were buried once again in debt and turmoil. The Great Depression was a consequence of manyRead MoreHistory Of American Economy : The Great Depression Essay1360 Words   |  6 PagesHistory of the American Economy: The Great Depression As early as the 1920s, Americans and their leaders were quite confident about their country’s better future, compared to some of the toughest economic times that the country had gone through, such as the mild economic depression in the early 1820s and the bank panic. In fact, during his election trail, Herbert Hoover shown off America’s optimism by citing that the triumph against the poor house was forthcoming. However, the Great Depression eruptedRead MoreAmerican Economic History: The Great Depression3024 Words   |  12 PagesTwo of the most dramatic episodes in American economic history were the 1929 Great Depression and the 2008 Great Recession. While in each period the sources of economic excess differed, manufacturing in 1929 and housing in 2008, there are many similarities in their causes and effects. Initially there were also similarities in the way government and monetary authorities responded. However, it is the differences in response that are the most i mportant and will have the greatest impact on the lengthRead MoreAmerican History And Literature : The Roaring Twenties, The Great Depression, And Wwii942 Words   |  4 PagesThe early 1900’s (between 1914 and 1945) were an interesting time in both American history and literature. Considering that events such as WWI, the Roaring Twenties, the Great Depression, and WWII had formidable impacts on many people who lived during those parts of the early 20th century; it would be apropos to assume that many writers of that time had major influences in their writing styles out of the various events that occurred during those times. One popular literary movement during this timeRead MoreWhat Is The History Of American Party Politics From The Great Depression Through The 1990s1770 Words   |  8 Pages3. The History of American Party Politics from the Great Depression through the 1990s. In the 18th century, when the debate over the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution was present, the United States formed the two political parties: the Federalist Party, which supported the national government and were dominant until 1800, and the rival Democratic-Republican Party, which supported state governments and were dominant after the 1800s. The two parties led to the creation of the parties,Read MoreWomen s Roles During The Great Depression1413 Words   |  6 PagesTo what extent did white women’s social roles change from the 1920s to the Great Depression when employment and income decreased nationwide? A. Plan of Investigation The Great Depression devastated the United States, and remains the worst depression ever experienced by the nation. During the â€Å"Roaring Twenties† when the economy was thriving in the United States, women took the opportunity to improve their social statuses through enlightenment, but as this period came to an end women’s social rolesRead MoreThe Herbert Hoover : The First President Born West Of The Mississippi River1291 Words   |  6 Pages2016 Knapp ` Herbert Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa, and was the first president born west of the Mississippi River. He was academically successful and strived to be the best. He was a great candidate but his presidency was a failed one. The Great Depression is mostly to blame, as Hoover worked hard to get to his position and then watched his hard work leave as he lost the chance to be reelected. Hoover was born in a Quaker community, which he later left at the age ofRead MoreUnspeakable Hardship1516 Words   |  7 PagesOctober 29, 1929 was the worst day of many American’s lives. That was the day the stock market crashed and the Great Depression was launched. At first, the President, and other politicians thought it would end after just a few months but it turned out to be the absolute worst stock market crash in the history of America. America lost 14 billion dollars on that one detrimental day and by the end of the week, America lost a flabbergasting 30 billion dollars. Today, that would be the equivalentRead MoreCauses and Effects of The Great Depression in the United States1238 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Depression is a defining moment in time for not only American, but world history. This was a time that caused political, economical, and social unrest. Not only did the Great Depression cause a world wide panic, it also caused a world wide crisis unlike any before it. This paper will analyze both the causes and the effects of the Great Depression in the United States of America. One cause of the depression is the effects of World War One. World War one had many devastating effects on

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

greek philosophy Essay - 984 Words

Greek Religion is the beginning to Greek philosophy and the beginning to many great philosophers. The lack of stimulation that Greek religion is the main reason why the study of philosophy became so popular in Greek culture. Philosophy of religion was studied because people like Socrates did not understand why things were and why they had to be only that way. The lack of religion is what led to people and philosophers questioning the ethical choices people followed. Philosophy is a study of beliefs and knowledge by a group or an individual; the study of philosophy according to Socrates was supposed to lead man with knowledge that equaled virtue that eventually led to happiness. Philosophy was a way of living back in Greek culture. There†¦show more content†¦These sophists were paid teachers of the Greek culture to the polis. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Socrates was one of the most important philosophers of his time. He was a man that stood up for what he believed in and he did for that cause. He questions politics and faith when no one else wanted too and it got him in trouble but he felt an unexamined life was not worth anything because there was no fault. A life that was not question was a life that was just lived with out and theory or question to why things are they way they are and how did they become that way. Socrates wanted men to examine what they were living for and why they became that person. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;With the popularity of Socrates a young man named Plato joined his followings and became his apprentice in a sense. Plato stayed with Socrates up till his death. Plato soon became the creator of metaphysics. Metaphysics was the idea that there are absolute goods and absolute truths which are only known to some men that were educated by the right people and if they are absolute with themselves they will live by The Republic. The Republic was the study of Plato’s ideas, in this doctrine Plato says that: earthly life is corruptible and that man must try to understand the realm of ideas, the realm of these ideas are spiritual so one must also prepare for the afterlife. One can say that Plato was hinting to what would become Christian tradition. In aShow MoreRelatedGreek Philosophy And The Greek Creation1593 Words   |  7 Pages The word â€Å"philosophy†, comes from the Ancient Greek word (Phileo), meaning â€Å"to love† or â€Å"to befriend† and (Sophia), meaning â€Å"wisdom†; making philosophy stand for â€Å"the love of wisdom†. Philosophy is about understanding the fundamental truths about ourselves, the world in which we live in, and our relationships to the world and amongst each other. It is the study of general problems connected with existence, values, language, and mind. Those who study philosophy (philosophers), engage in askingRead MoreGreek And Classical Greek Philosophy997 Words   |  4 Pages Classical Greek Philosophy A philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, esp. when considered as an academic discipline. Greece was divided into several city-states, which ran separately and independent from each other. However, they shared commonalities, such as common ancestry, language, and festivals. Foreigners were all considered barbarians to the Greek. Greek Culture is reflected in today s Society in many ways. These ways include mathematicsRead MoreGreek Philosophy : The And The Sophists1167 Words   |  5 PagesDevyn K. Smith Greek Philosophy Henry Schuurman I.D Number:130010 Mailbox Number: 621 Protagoras and the Sophists Throughout the history of the world, philosophy has been at the forefront of the human search for knowledge, but there is no other philosophy like ancient Greek philosophy. Ancient Greek philosophy roughly began in the sixth century BCE and continued on up until ancient Greece became apart of the Roman Empire. The great Greek philosophers of the time, like Plato, Socrates, and AristotleRead MoreEssay on Greek Philosophy673 Words   |  3 PagesGreek Philosophy Philosophy, the use of reason and argument in seeking truth and knowledge of reality. Throughout history man has searched for the origins of his existence, both on an outward and inward level, seeking truth and understanding of his world. The first culture to actively explore this idea of philosophy was the Greeks. Because their civilization placed less emphasis on religion and the masses didnt have to constantly answer to religious figures man had time to explore other thingsRead MoreAncient Greek Philosophy -Paper776 Words   |  4 PagesLovers of Wisdom Ancient Greek philosophy arouse in the 6th century BCE, some claim that Greek Philosophy was influenced by the older wisdom literature and mythological cosmogonies of the Ancient Greek Near East. Greeks had confidence in the power of the mind Greeks used observation and reason to determine why things happened, they opened up a new way of looking at human existence. During the time of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle it was a crime to investigate the things above the heavensRead MoreThe Golden Age Of Greek Philosophy947 Words   |  4 Pageshuman beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. The Golden Age of Greek philosophy is the antecedents of humanism. It is nothing like todays humanism but has the same characteristics. Society’s in the Greek world had become increasingly intricate and they also developed new ways of solving problems, having doubts about Greek philosophy. This new thinking did not abandon religion in essence but was establishing passion to follow science, intelligenceRead MorePsychology in Greek Philosophy, Paragraphs1403 Words   |  6 Pagesclassical Greek philosopher who devoted his life and work to searching for moral good, virtue, and justice. He developed a method of seeking knowledge by question and answer called dialectics. He used this technique to teach individuals about their own ignorance, so as to become more self-aware (Leahey, 20 13). Based on this information, I believe Socrates would fit the archetype of the teacher. According to Larson (2002), the archetype of the teacher has its origins in Greek philosophy. This isRead MoreEssay on Great Religions And Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy.904 Words   |  4 Pages Great Religions and Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the 6th century B.C, there began a dualism in Greek Philosophy. The development of Greek Philosophy became a compromise between Greek monistic and oriental influences, in other words, a combination of intellectualism and mysticism. Thus began the pre-Socratic philosophy. The interests of pre- Socratic philosophers were centered on the world that surrounds man, the Cosmos. This was during the time of great internalRead MoreEssay on The Importance of Moderation in Greek Philosophy1842 Words   |  8 Pages Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher, once said that all men possess by nature a craving for knowledge. This idea has been explored for thousands of years within various cultures throughout the world. Within Aristotles own culture, many greek myths were developed that pondered the idea of the constant search for knowledge. One of the most famous perhaps is the myth of Daedalus and Icarus. This myth tells the classic story of a man, Daedalus, who wishes to escape the island of Crete withRead MoreGreek Philosophies Impact On The Early Development Of Christian Thought1348 Words   |  6 PagesChristianity belief is seen more as a theology while Greek thinking or Hellenism is seen more as a philosophy. All theologists are philosophers but not all philosophers are theologists. Greek philosophies had great impact on the early development of Christ ian thought. Much of the elements in the early Greek philosopher’s theories regarding the soul, creation, and salvation were reflected in the development of early Christian thought. The Greeks were tenacious in asking why and how questions concerning

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Affects of Divorce on Youth Free Essays

In Canada, it is estimated that four in ten marriages end in divorce. Despite the â€Å"’til death do us part† vow couples participate in at the time of marriage, there were 69,600 separations in Canada in 2004 (Statistics Canada, 2004). It has also been determined that every one in two divorces involves children. We will write a custom essay sample on The Affects of Divorce on Youth or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although there have been many studies done which attempt to prove that children who experience parental divorce do have behavioral problems, fail to complete high school, and have emotional discrepancies, the effects of divorce on the overall outcome of a child is not detrimental to his or her development. Those who take the stance that divorce is a determining factor through their various studies have not taken a proper representative sample of cases from children nor considered other determining factors which could also lead to a child’s lack of well-being. Today a divorce is when a marriage is legally dissolved because the relationship is irretrievably broken. However, before the Divorce Act of 1968, divorces were increasingly difficult to obtain. In order to be granted one, the couple would have to meet at least one criteria of marital breakdown – they would have to be living apart for a year or longer, one of the spouses has to have committed an act of adultery, or one spouse has treated the other in a cruel way. The average Canadian family features parents who deal with a plethora of stressors. One of the main reasons for marriage dissatisfaction, however, is money. This problem is prevalent when a family does not have enough income to support its needs or wants. Pressure to fulfill these desires will create an unhappy relationship between everybody involved. Regardless, when parents separate, it can create a whole new distress in the child which can outweigh that of any economical situation the family could be facing. While parents toying with the idea of divorce may think that by legally separating, they could be risking their children’s overall happiness; by staying together they could be putting the child at greater risk of mental and emotional problems. Children who are witness to their parents constant fighting and conflicts are at higher risk of long-term distress (Jekielek, 1998). Divorce where there is little parental conflict will actually do a child less harm than no divorce with high parental conflict. The symptoms of being in an environment where there is high parental conflict is very similar to those seen in children of divorce; they can develop anxiety and aggression (Morrison and Corio, 1999), as well as behavioral problems in school such as antisocial behavior and difficulty concentrating (Amato and Sobolewski, 2001). Socialization of children is essential during school years. Children who are affected negatively during this time by parental conflict or divorce can create problems for the future by making them socially withdrawn. Poor social skills and shyness can force children into complications which have the potentiality to permanently damage their views and impact the formation of healthy relationships. There are three factors which account for much of the distress among children, and high parental conflict is the most determining factor. The second is a decline of living standards; this is where the child’s family has a low economic status and cannot fulfill the needs and basic wants of a child successfully. A child’s family can reach poverty if the mother or father who is granted custody does not earn enough money to support the child, due to the loss of complimenting income from the noncustodial parent or the fact that they cannot get a job because they had sacrificed their education and employment opportunities in order to care for the child. The third factor is the absence of the noncustodial parent. This is because the child loses a role-model who they look to for emotional and physical support (Resnick et al. , 1997), an issue which the social learning theory commends. The time with the noncustodial parent will eventually decrease with time, whereas the child’s relationship with his or her mother will increase (Amato and Booth, 1996). Whereas evidence in the past has supported findings that a child is well adapted, self confident and secure in who they are when they are raised in a two parent as opposed to single parent household, a child with divorced parents is said to suffer both mentally and emotionally. There are two propositions, one of which suggests that children who grow up in households where the two biological parents are not present will exhibit lower levels of well-being, and the other says that the adverse effects on youthful ell-being will be especially acute when the cause of parental absence is marital separation, divorce, or desertion. They often tend to develop behavioral problems and do less well in school than children of intact families (Demo, Fine, and Ganong, 2000). On top of that, they are more likely to engage in dangerous behavior such as substance and alcohol abuse. These damaging effects have the potential to last the child into adulthood. One study showed that almost half the children of divorced parents entered adulthood as worried, self-deprecating, and sometimes angry young men and women (Wallerstein, Lewis, and Blakeslee, 2000). They also tend to be less happy than a child with intact parents, and increasingly likely to suffer from health problems, depend on welfare, earn low income, and experience divorce themselves. Problems with marriage are thought to be prevalent in cases where a child’s parents have experienced divorce and can lead to an increase in divorces between them as well as an overall aversion to marriage (Anthony, 1974). Many of these adults continue to struggle with depression, anxiety, and overall feeling of dissatisfaction with their overall lives. These people will utilize more mental health services than will those who grew up with both parents (Amato and Sobolewski, 2001). Compared to children whose parents did not separate, children with divorced parents are more likely to drop out of high school, less likely to attend college, and complete fewer years of education overall. Some believe that this is due to the emotional disturbance which is caused in households where parental conflict is high, resulting in a poor sense of self in the child. Poor sense of self also leads to other relationship troubles including infidelity, reoccurring divorces, and remarriages and in extreme cases spousal and domestic abuse. It has also been found that those living in a single-parent household are associated with a greater risk of not completing high school (Deleire and Kalil, 2002). In one study, it shows that the proportion of children graduating from high school is the highest for children with no change in their family structure and lowest for children with three or more changes in their family structure. Relative to children in households that reported no change in marital status, children who experienced any type of change in family structure were less likely to graduate from high school. The odds of completing high school for children whose parents experienced parental divorce only were 61 percent lower than for children whose parents remained together. However, despite evidence which proves that divorce does cause an emotional disturbance within children, some analysts disagree. Despite the link between divorce and long-term negative consequences, this evidence is based on families who seek psychological counseling. These families are a small and unrepresentative minority of the population. Another discrepancy in this theory is that some analysts fail to ask whether factors other than divorce might be responsible for the long-term distress experienced by children of divorced parents. A re-analysis of 93 relevant studies showed that the overall effect of divorce on children’s well-being is not strong and is declining over time (Amato and Booth, 1991). Whereas some studies show a significant decrease of education completion, one study done across Canada, Australia, and the United States of America shows that divorce is not an educational â€Å"disaster†. Rather, it says that children whose parents divorce get approximately seven-tenths of a year less education than children from intact families. A divorce is not the determining factor in long-term distress in children; rather, it is a multitude of factors which complement each other in creating a child with various mental and emotional difficulties. Despite evidence supporting both sides of this argument, those who believe that studies which discredit the results which seem to support divorce as the major distress-causing agent of previous studies seem to be the most believable; this is because there is simply so much more to a divorce than the act of separation in itself. Determinants such as parental conflict, economic status, and the upbringing of the child all play major roles in providing distress in a child’s life. Although the argument of divorce causing some sort of problematic experiences in a child, which will last them into adulthood, is a strong one, one must remember all of the other agents which build up to a divorce when deciding whether or not a divorce is the sole detrimental attribute to a problematic childhood. ? How to cite The Affects of Divorce on Youth, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Modernism Essay example Example For Students

Modernism Essay example Modernism is defined in Merriam-Websters Dictionary as a self-conscious break with the past and a search for new forms of expression. While this explanation does relate what modernism means, the intricacies of the term go much deeper. Modernism began around 1890 and waned around 1922. Virginia Wolf once wrote, In or about December, 1910, human character changed. (Hurt and Wilkie 1443). D.H. Lawrence wrote a similar statement about 1915: It was 1915 the old world ended. (Hurt and Wilkie 1444). The importance of the exact dates of the Modernist period are not so relevant as the fact that new ideas were implemented in the era. Ideas that had never before been approached in the world of literature suddenly began emerging in the works of many great authors. Two of the pioneer Modernist writers were Joseph Conrad and T.S. Eliot. The tendencies to question the incontestable beliefs embedded in all thinking and to focus on the inner self dominated. Old viewpoints were tossed aside to make wa y for the discovery of modern mans personal spirituality. Two works that are considered important forbears in the Modern period are T.S. Eliots The Wasteland and Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness. One attribute of Modernist writing is Experimentation. This called for using new techniques and disregarding the old. Previous writing was often even considered stereotyped and inadequate (Holcombe and Torres). Modern writers thrived on originality and honesty to themselves and their tenets. They wrote of things that had never been advanced before and their subjects were far from those of the past eras. It could be observed that the Modernist writing completely contradicted its predecessors. The past was rejected with vigor and Experimentation played a key role in the new Modernist way of writing. The Modernist writers did not try to censure what they felt was the truth. Stepping outside of the box, they wrote what they perceived in their own minds to be reality. The readers in turn were given a new form of literature that was not written on the basis of beliefs that earlier had seemed indisputable. Not only were old belief systems disregarded, they were openly opposed. Even more sur prising, the new thoughts were acceptable, and in turn provided an alternative route for thinking that had not formerly been considered. Anti-Realism is another feature of Modernism. This element included the use of myth and allusion in writing. Description was a prominent feature in literature before the Modernist period; writers had set the scene using an exactness that left little room for a readers imagination. With Modernism emerged the allusion, which meant that only certain aspects of the setting or scene were revealed. This provided freedom for the reader to think about what the author was presenting through the text. The work was created through the inner feelings and workings of the characters and the symbols hidden in the plot and setting. The way themes and points of view were selected went against the earlier convention also. Sigmund Freuds Interpretation of Dreams in 1899 opened the door to previously undiscovered value in the human unconscious. This led to a whole new emphasis of individualism in both the writer and the reader, who were given free reign to explore not only who a character was but also w hy characters operated as they did. Through the workings of the characters unconscious dimensions began to surface and the entire direction of stories changed. Modernism was also concerned with Individualism. In this regard a stream of unconsciousness writing evolved, the use of the irrational logic of dreams and fantasies (Hurt and Wilkie 1447). In Strindbergs preface to A Dream Play he described stream of unconsciousness by saying, The author has sought to reproduce the disconnected, yet apparently logical, form of the dream. Anything is possible and plausible. Time and space do not exist; the imagination, grounding itself only slightly in reality, spins and weaves new patterns, mixing memory, experience, free invention, absurdity, and improvisation. Characters divide, double, redouble, evaporate, condense, float out of each other, converge. But there is consciousness transcending all-the consciousness of the dreamer (Hurt and Wilkie 1447). Questions posed within the work became hypothetical. It was the Modern authors purpose to evoke thinking in not only themselves, but in society. Due to the theoretical questions posed in the works of the Modern period, a sense of open-endedness was often left at the conclusion of a piece of writing. The use of fragmentation became customary in the Modern novel. The Modern writer presented the reader with fragments; the plot was often broken into portions that had to be pieced together in the mind of the reader. This went against the normal pattern of placing things side- by- side in logical order, or in normal juxtaposition. In Hurt and Wilkies Literature of the Western World, evidence of fragmentation is shown through several examples of the style in a few different Modern works. For example, The Wasteland begins to resemble a series of sonnets for a short period, but turning away from its model in blank verse, and Heart of Darkness steps away from its earnest journey into the mind and reminds us for a moment of a boys adventure story (Hurt and Wilkie 1447). In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad presented the reader with an exploration of the human mind and modern society as well as with a search for the truth. Conrad was a pioneer of many Modernist methods. He used fragmentation through his narration-within-narration technique in The Heart of Darkness. The novella opens with an unknown narrator who introduces the main storyteller, Marlow. The narrative managed successfully to display the characteristics of the modern world in London while at the same time illustrating the precise contrary to that civilization in the dated Congo. This combination of factors helped to fashion the theme of The Heart of Darkness, as well as construct Kurtzs complex character. C.B. Cox tried to clarify his thoughts on what the title of Conrads Heart of Darkness signified in the book Joseph Conrad: The Modern Imagination. He hypothesized by stating, Heart of Darkness may suggest that the wilderness has a heart, which the reader, guided by Marlow, may discover. At the center of existence we may find the secret meaning of the pilgrimage. But Heart of Darkness may also imply the real darkness is in the heart, and that we journey from the known to the unknown. We are led towards the ultimate darkness, a condition of meaninglessness which negates all civilized values (Cox 48). Preludes and Modernism EssayMythological references are also abundant in the poem. One of the obvious examples is the myth of the Fisher King and his sickness and the infertility of his lands.The myth states the curse can only be lifted when the destined Deliverer asks the magic question or performs the magic act (Brooks 63). The Fisher King is used as one of the many symbols of sexuality in the poem. Another example is Eliots protagonist, Tiresias. Tiresias is a figure from classic mythology who possesses the physical parts of both man and woman. He was the blind prophet in Oedipus Rex, and was believed to have journeyed to Hades and walked among the dead, a feat that meant he had experienced the worst of life and humanity. In The Waste Land both of his prior roles remain with him, he is blind and is the possessor of the knowledge of all horror. Eliot portrays him as the character that does not denounce the actions of society, but can see all facileness and emptiness of humanity. Although he can distinguish what is truly taking place, he like all Eliots other characters, is unable to discern the ability he possesses. These two works of literature though very different in context, share many similarities because of there strong Modernistic qualities. In fact T.S. Eliot considered using part of Conrads Heart of Darkness in The Waste Land. In T.S. Eliots Poetry and Plays, the author, Grover Smith, tells us how Eliot was going to use Kurtz dying words, The original epigraph for The Waste Land was the climatic outcry of Kurtz in Conrads Heart of Darkness: `The horror! `The horror!' (Smith 68). Both works contain many of the same symbols in their imagery and allusions. For example, each story contains a reference to Buddah. Eliot uses Buddah to join with St. Augustine and complete his union of the chief types of Eastern and Western simplicity. He also uses Buddah in Part III, The Fire Sermon; in which Buddah preaches a sermon evoking his people to give up their earthly possessions. Joseph Conrad used Buddah in the unknown narrators description of Marlow prior to Marlows tale and when following his tale . Another significant sign mentioned in both Modernist works is the Thames River. In Heart of Darkness, the story opens with the shipmates waiting for the tide to turn, they are overlooking the Thames River as they begin listening to Marlow tell his story. When Marlow completes his narrative the unnamed narrator takes back over and says, The offing was barred by a black bank of clouds, and the tranquil waterway leading to the uttermost ends of the Earth flowed somber under an overcast sky-seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness (Conrad 72). Therefore offering an insight to belief that the waterway led to the evil, providing foreshadowing of what was to come. The river is also described in The Waste Land; it is one of the few things that Eliot was tranquil in his description of. The presence of allusions to Dante and The Inferno in Heart of Darkness can be paralleled to the more obvious stated references to Dante in the poem. Mentions of Dantes Inferno are abundant in Th e Waste Land where they are not specifically mentioned in The Heart of Darkness. Symbolically Marlow is comparable to Dante and his journey through Hell. Marlow can easily become the Dante-figure and his hell the dark Congo. He, like Dante, was forced to live through the journey, and therefore to live with the memories and horrors of it. Through close examination of Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness and T.S. Eliots The Waste Land Modernism can be identified through its features. These two pieces of literature embody the Modernist period, as do their creators. Conrad and Eliot showed that to understand Modernism one must understand that it is entangled with the reality of isolation and extreme disorder. Marlow, through avoiding the extremes of Kurtz and the unenlightened society is isolated from everyone because of his understanding and knowledge of the truth and his ability to live with the knowledge. Eliot delves into a world of disorder in The Waste Land by displaying characters that couldnt see what they embodied, referring to works of literature and twisting them to develop his purpose, and his use of fragmentation. Allusion is encrusted into both works exemplifying the idea of thinking for oneself and personal interpretation of the Modernist period. Works Cited Aiken, Conrad. An Anatomy of Melancholy. The New Republic XXXIII (1923): 294-295. Rpt. in Studies in A Waste Land. Ed. Matthew Bruccoli and Joseph Katz. Columbus: Merrill Publishing, 1971. 13-18. Brooks, Cleanth. The Waste Land: Critique of the Myth. Modern Poetry And The Tradition (1939): 136-72. Rpt. in Studies in A Waste Land. Ed. Matthew Bruccoli and Joseph Katz. Columbus: Merrill Publishing, 1971. 37-66. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. New York: Dover Publications, 1990. Cox, C.B. Joseph Conrad: The Modern Imagination. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1974. Eliot, T.S. Collected Poems. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1936. Holcomb, John, and Patricia Torres. Modernism in Literature. 2002. LitLangs. 6 September 2003 . Hurt, James, and Brian Wilkie. Literature of the Western World Volume II Neoclassicism Through the Modern Period. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. Monroe, Harriet. A Contrast. Poetry A Magazine of Verse XXI (1923): 325-330. Rpt. in Studies in A Waste Land. Ed. Matthew Bruccoli and Joseph Katz. Columbus: Merrill Publishing, 1971. 19-22. Smith, Grover JR. T.S. Eliots Poetry and Plays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1956.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Harm Reduction Essay Example

Harm Reduction Essay WHAT IS HARM REDUCTION? Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies intended to reduce the negative consequences of high risk behavior such as over drinking or drug abuse. Harm reduction is a non judgmental approach that attempts to meet people where they are at with their drinking or drug abuse. Instead of demanding perfect abstinence, this pragmatic approach is supportive of anyone who wishes to minimize the harm associated with a high risk behavior such as drinking or drug abuse. Harm reduction accepts that high risk behaviors such as recreational alcohol intoxication or part of world and works to minimize their harmful effects rather than simply ignore or condemn them. Harm reduction does not attempt to force people to change in ways which they don’t choose for themselves. Harm reduction is a compassionate approach whose primary concern is the increased well-being of its constituency. Harm reduction works on the premise that it is easier to get people to make small changes than to get them make big changes. Because of this it is possible to have a far greater positive change than getting only a few people to make big changes. It is easier and far more effective to get people to use seat belts than to eliminate auto-mobile and driving entirely. And it is easier and more effective to teach people how to plan their drinking and drink safely than to try and eliminate recreational intoxication entirely. Prohibition and coerce abstinence do not work, harm reduction does. We will write a custom essay sample on Harm Reduction specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Harm Reduction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Harm Reduction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer WHY SHOULD HARM REDUCTION APPROACHES BE IMPLEMENTD? The main reason that harm reduction approaches should be implemented is that these strategies save lives and diminish the likelihood of drug use problems for the individual, their families and the surrounding community. 1. Liver problems: related to the user’s physical or psychological health such as cirrhosis, cancer, overdose, psychiatric, psychological or emotional problems (amnesia, depression. paranoma, etc) accidents or other injuries while intoxicated. . Lover: problems related to relationships, family, friends, intimate partner and children. 3. Livelihood; problems related to the user professional life (e. g, lack of concentration at work or school) and other non-professional activities such as hobbies. 4. Law: legal problems related to illegal drug use, drug acquisition, and /or trafficking including driving under the influence of drugs Other effects of drug and alcohol abuse . work places: Substance use can cause m ajor consequences on the â€Å"work place†: absenteeism, lost production, staff retention, interpersonal conflicts, increase number of accidents/injuries, all these have happened as a result of alcohol and drug use and have been documented on occupational health and safety. Alcohol/drug abuse makes someone to fail to acquire or hold a job because of the effects of drugs on coordination, balance and the ability to think and retain. 2. Politics/drug policy reform Alcohol and smoking are more or less socially acceptable drugs none the less, they are killers. Other socially acceptable or prescription drugs include tranquillizers and sleeping tablets. The danger of abuse of over the counter medicines, although receiving less public attention, is probably greater than â€Å"controlled† or illegal drugs because they are more generally available. Everyone knows that the trade in hard drugs is big business, few are aware that the business involved in prescription drugs is even bigger. The pharmaceutical industry is one of the fast growing in the world. Millions of monies are spent on advertising and the promotion of brand names to doctors has a great influence on what product will eventually prescribed to patients. The pharmaceutical industry spends on average over twice as much as on advertising as it does on research and development on new products. In some countries especially developed, there is one drug company representative for every 8 doctors. Minor tranquilizers, such as valium and sleeping pills are the most common drug on repeat prescription and taken in prolonged use. They will control the initial symptoms of anxiety, but simply used on their own cannot control emotional or spiritual problems. Most attention has been focused on drugs like heroin, cocaine, cannabis, etc. These substances have been made illegal. Why? It is an issue of politics and profit not about any great concern for individual’s health or functioning. As opposed to more radical responses to immoral and risky lifestyles, harm reduction is a certain healthcare philosophy that approaches such lifestyles from a just and social point of view. Most frequent risky lifestyles are drug and alcohol abuse, and casual sex. Harm reduction is rather a new alternative which is aimed at reducing the risk and possible harm from these lifestyles. Unlike other healthcare philosophies, harm reduction does not intend to abolish such risky and dangerous lifestyles. Rather it accepts that abusers would willfully engage in such activities. Thus, the central idea is that if they would anyway opt for such risks and potential harm, let then this harm be reduced and these individuals less exposed to healthcare problems and other risks. Furthermore, the philosophy supports the rights of those risk takers for the same social security and healthcare. Because of the so facilitating and promoting nature of the approach, as the critics view it, this approach has become very controversial in the world, especially in the United States. Harm reduction practices are based on various policies that are aimed to reduce harm for abusers and risk takers. The broad categories of harm reduction policies include providing crucial information about safer sex and drug uses, arranging safe injection rooms for addicts to prevent disease spreading, controlling the distribution of alcoholic beverages for homeless shelters to prevent chronic alcoholic from drinking non-beverage alcohol products, and amendment of penalties for drugs. Some advocates of harm reduction claim that prohibition of soft drugs like marijuana is old-fashioned. Moreover, they claim that this prohibition is actually useless and ineffective, because despite the laws soft drug users still exist. Craig Reinarman and Harry Levine, in their book Crack in America, explain that such prohibition of drugs (although they referred to crack cocaine) has actually served as a cause for creation of harm reduction movement, because the old policy proved useless. Marijuana use, for example, is even used in medical treatment programs, and supporters of harm reduction argue that healthcare risks of marijuana use are rather low. Thus, risk reduction policies regarding the matter include providing high-quality marijuana in cafes and decriminalization of the drug, if kept in small quantities or grown for personal usage. Such policies reduce the risk of using low quality product (the harm), and also challenge the diminish market of marijuana. Testing hard drugs for harmful chemicals has also become a regular activity, supported by harm reductionists. Volunteers from non-profit organizations test samples of pills brought by users in order to prevent these users from taking low quality substances from the underground market. Pills and crystals sold illegally are often impure and contain harmful chemicals. So, anyone can test his or her pill and make sure the drug is pure. This way, such organizations simply reduce the harm of taking low quality crack, ecstasy, or other drug. Safe injection sites and needle exchange are among the most popular yet the most controversial harm reduction policies. Safe injection sites are places where drug addicts can receive a clean needle and a dose of a drug for free, and use these in safe environment. The idea behind such allegedly immoral activity is that these people would find a way out to have that single next shot. But due to the risk of catching some disease or injecting unclear chemicals, or committing a crime, certain organizations that support harm reduction philosophy provide such services to addicts. Barring the actual harm and risk reduction, providing high quality drugs for free discourages illegal trade of drugs on the streets. Less effective, but still significant, is the needle exchange practice, which provides safe clean needles and syringes to anybody for free. Such policy significantly reduces the risk of catching diseases (or HIV virus) from used needles. The Dutch, as opposed to Americans, as described in Adam Smith’s Americas Lonely Drug War, have implemented a unique drug policy, where they treated addiction as a health problem, and decriminalized use of drugs completely. Harm reductionist approach appeared to be much more successful to fight drug-related crime, diseases, and drug use in general in the long-term. The outcomes and the effects of harm reduction policies have been questionable for a long time. The Dutch drug policy suffered a huge increase in drug use (especially marijuana) amongst youngsters during the year after implementation, reports Susan Kaplin in her report The Effects of Harm Reduction Vs Harm Prevention: An International Assessment. Critics of harm reduction philosophy predicted this outcome, because legalizing something which had been banned would certainly tempt many to try during the first several years. However, such drug policies based on harm reduction like in the Netherlands are aimed at long-term improvement. Interestingly, the American Academy for Educational Development conducted another study in New York Does harm reduction programming make a difference in the lives of highly marginalized, at-risk drug users? in 2004 to find out the effects of harm reduction drug policies. They have discovered that â€Å"there was significant client progress across most outcomes from entrance in the harm reduction program to the last follow-up assessment. † However, it is important to note that the policies and the circumstance under which the participants have been were rather different, because in the Netherlands, methadone has been given out for free to heroin addicts (1993 study), and the New York research was limited in time, scale, space, and offered only support, counseling, and healthcare services by mobile units (2004 study). Thus, the New York study shows that there is enough evidence to believe that harm reduction practices do help reduce drug related harm, and improve the health of subjects. Harm reductionist philosophy requires complete rethinking of the approach to war against drug and alcohol abuse, and other risky lifestyles. As evidences have shown, harm reduction does help to improve the well-being and reduce harm in drug addicts. However, if implemented too quickly with decriminalization of drugs, the younger population may engage in mass drug abuse, as was in the Netherlands in the 80’s and 90’s. Thus, harm reduction should certainly be considered as one of the means in fighting against drug-related problems in society, but these harm reduction policies should be implemented accurately and carefully, so that they do not promote or encourage even more drug abuse. Ultimately, harm reduction philosophy is based on accepting the inevitable and making it less harmful, instead of blindly pretending that laws are obeyed. Health impacts Alcohol is the world’s third major disease, but alcohol and smoking are more or less socially acceptable drugs, nonetheless they are killers. Other socially acceptable or prescription drugs include tranquilizers and sleeping tablets. The dangers of abuse of the over the counter medicine although receiving less public attention are probably greater than â€Å"controlled† or illegal drugs because they are more generally available. Tackling the causes We should seriously consider tackling the stress of everyday life by making a supreme effort to get at the cause of the situation rather than dealing with the symptoms. Drug can be use to control and treat illness. These should always be used under medical supervision. Many of the conditions for which patients consult doctors these days could be better treated in ways other than by drugs. Many illnesses have a mental component which can be helped considerably by symptomatic understanding and explanation of the disease process. Risk Infectious Diseases Including HIV In spite of the growing efforts to address the AIDS epidemic, HIV and other infectious diseases continue to spread, particularly among infection drug users. The number of people living with HIV and also the number of deaths due to AIDS continues to increase. A total of 39. 5 million people live with HIV and estimated of 4. 3 million(3. 6 million-6. 6 million) adults and children were newly infected with HIV in 2006 according to the UNAIDS/WHO 2006. Effective principals for working IDU’S to prevent HIV 1. Save a non-judgmental attitude. 2. Emphasizes the drug users ability to care for himself or herself 3. Use short term pragmatic goals and scale of behaviour to achieve the goals 4. Provide information about the transmission of HIV, it is prevention and it is connection with risk behaviour 5. Focus on concrete risk behaviour and connect those with the individual’s reality(his/her own risk behaviour) 6. Provide different options to reduce the risk of infection 7. Provide a supportive environment (professionals, family, peers, etc) 8. Have a team of experienced professionals involved and digesting and implementing harm reduction programs and strategies GENERAL HARM REDUCTION STRATEGIES Education strategies: The first in harm reduction is to provide accurate information about the consequences and risk of drugs use and promote behaviors that reduce risk. Education should include information on physical and psycho-social risks of drug abuse, risks of overdose, infectious diseases, driving problems, and cardiovascular, metabolic, and physical disorders. Education needs to be combined with other interventions, such as brief interventions, in order to be effective. Educational strategies may include information on safer sex practices to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and information on the consequences of the various ways that drugs can be taken (routes of administration). These strategies also need to include information on health and social services available in your area. Education for drug users may include one-on-one sessions or group sessions that occur in clinical settings or other settings (institutions, prison, on the street). Brief interventions and Counseling: Brief interventions are focused on changing high-risk behaviors. These interventions might include single-session therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, and/or motivational interviewing (see Volume B, Modules 1-3). These interventions may last between 15 minutes to 4 hours and, again, they may or may not be conducted in clinical settings. Interventions to reduce injury and violence: Drugs such as alcohol have been related to injury, violence, and public disorder. Strategies to change the environment may be helpful, such as changing alcohol containers (from bottles to plastic glasses), banning beverages with high concentrations of alcohol, community mobilization, etc. Other interventions can be aimed towards reducing road accidents by promoting public transportation, punishment for drinking and driving, etc. Availability of measures to prevent the acute consequences of stimulation abuse in the outlets of frequent abuse of these substances could contribute to the prevention of related emergencies. Harm reduction strategies for injection drug use: Preventing the spread of HIV and other adverse consequences: Low-threshold pharmacological interventions (opiod-antagonist drugs), not directly related to drug-free (non-methadone) programmes but to immediate health protection. One of the aims of these interventions is to reduce the risk of contraction or transmitting HIV and other infectious diseases by substituting non injecting drugs for the legal drugs dispensed under the care of a health professional, so the risk of overdose and other medical complications is minimized. Drug substitution helps to reduce crime and drug users high risk behaviors since it reduces the urgency of acquiring the drug. Drug substitution also allows health professionals to keep in contact with drug users, which aids in keeping them in treatment and thereby reduce relapse. Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Early detection of HIV infection is critical. Barriers such as lack of testing availability and the questionable accuracy of HIV test, and fears of discrimination, fears about getting a positive result from the test and fears of social stigma need to be overcome to better implement HIV testing as a prevention programme, Voluntary testing should, ideally be accompanied by HIV counselling. This includes a risk evaluation and information on prevention of transmission. Pre-test counselling should focus on assessment and getting the necessary information from the client on his/her medical history. , drug use knowledge of HIVand AIDS, sexual behaviour (number of patners, condom use, etc) exposure to high risk situations and other information, information about the test should also be provided at this moment. post counselling depends on the test results. If negative, the client should receive information that the results might not be reliable and that a new test should be conducted in 3-6 months. Over dose prevention Naloxone, a short-acting opioid antagonist, overturns the immediate effects of heroin and prevents overdose among injection drug users. other drugs such as methadone, which have similar properties to heroin and morphine, help to reduce overdose, risk of HIV and hepatitis, and criminal acts and other high risk behaviors’( the latter two because methadone is delivered legally). other overdose management strategies include peer-to-peer and encouraging peers to seek help and call an ambulance when an over dose is suspected. Prevention and services for the management of sexually transmitted infections: It is critical to provide information to drug users about the risk of HIV transmission and strategies to reduce such transmission. Strategies may include using condoms, reducing the number of sexual partners or being faithful to one partner, treating sexually transmitted diseases, abstinence, etc. What steps should we take to develop harm reduction strategies with our clients? Step 1: Be familiar with the potential harms associated with all types of drug use. Step 2: Assess the harms and risk associated with the clients drug use by analyzing their pattern of drug use. You could use forms such as the when? Where? Why? With/from Whom? What happened? Step 3: Assess with the client and provide feedback to them about how their behaviour is contributing to the harms they are experiencing, Step4: Use a collaborative approach with the client to consider as many harm reduction strategies as possible. It is equally important to identify barriers to the implementation of these strategies. Step 5: Have the client identify their goals regarding drug use and related behaviors’ and delineate how they will achieve these goals Step6: Monitor the client behavior, reinforce positive changes and address difficulties Conclusion Worries concerning financial, social and marital problems are rampant these days, a brief consultation with a general practioner is not the best answer to many stress related problems that arise. One is likely to come away with a prescription for tranquilizer pill as a temporary measure without understanding the underlying problem. If the real trouble is disharmony at home one needs to be honest instead of coming up with bizarre symptoms forcing the doctor to prescribe tranquilizer which may not cure the problem but addiction. The goal of harm reduction strategies and approaches is to reduce the negative consequences of drug abuse, not to eliminate the use of illicit drugs. Harm reduction is a practical approach that employs a range of different strategies with the goal of minimizing the risk of the client contracting infectious diseases, overdosing or suffering other consequences related to the use of substances. Strategies may include changing the way people consume the drugs or insuring that the environment in which they use minimizes the risk of negative consequences of their health (infectious, overdose) or quality of life Legal problems, social and familiar issues, etc). Strategies can vary depending on the drug, the type of harm related to its consumption and the individual who consumes the drugs. Bibliography 1. Mac Master, S. (2004). Harm Reduction: a new perspective on substance abuse services. Social Work. v49 i3 p356. 2. Reinarman, C. and Levine H. (1997). Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. University of California Press. Ch 10, 17. 3. Smith, A. (2001). Americas Lonely Drug War. Mother Jones, United Kingdom, London page 41-45 4. Does harm reduction programming make a difference in the lives of highly marginalized, at-risk drug users? (2004). Academy of Educational Development. Retrieved May 4th 2006 from Harm Reduction Journal at http://www. harmreductionjournal. com/content/1/1/7 5. Kaplin, S. (1994). The Effects Of Harm Reduction Vs Harm Prevention: An International Assessment. Retrieved May 4th 2006 from Sarnia Online at http://www. sarnia. com 6. Clemency Mitchell, 2003 vibrant health in the twenty first century, England page 87-91 7. D. N Marshall 2009, A guide to family Health Grantham ,England page 29-63,

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Why They Play Pranks on Dec. 28 in Spain, Latin America

Why They Play Pranks on Dec. 28 in Spain, Latin America If you should be in a Spanish-speaking country some April 1 and play a joke on your friends and follow that up with a shout of  ¡Tontos de abril! chances are youll get nothing but blank stares as a reaction. The minor holiday of April Fools Day, perennially popular in the United States, is little known in Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin America, but there is a rough equivalent, el Dà ­a de los Santos Inocentes (Day of the Holy Innocents), observed on Dec. 28. The Day of the Holy Innocents also known sometimes in English as the Feast of the Holy Innocents or as Childermas. How Dec. 28 Is Celebrated The day is observed  throughout the Spanish-speaking world  in much the same way as April Fools Day. But when the prankster is ready to reveal the joke, the saying is  ¡Inocente, inocente! or Innocent one, innocent one! (See the lesson on making nouns out of adjectives for the grammar behind this.) It is also common on that day for newspapers and TV stations to print or broadcast news stories based in humor rather than fact. In its origins, the day is a sort of gallows humor. The Day of the Innocents observes the day when, according to the Gospel of Matthew in the Bible, King Herod ordered the baby boys under 2 years old in Bethlehem to be killed because he was afraid that the baby Jesus born there would become a rival. As it turned out, though, the baby Jesus had been taken away to Egypt by Mary and Joseph. So the joke was on Herod, and thus followed the tradition of tricking friends on that day. (This is a sad story, but according to tradition the babies murdered in Jesus stead went to heaven as the first Christian martyrs.) Celebrating With a Food Fight One of worlds more unusual celebrations of any kind is used to mark Dec. 28 in Ibi, Alicante, Spain, not far from the middle of the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. In a tradition more than 200 years old, townspeople engage in a massive food fight of sorts- but its all in good fun and is used to raise money for charity. After a several decades in which the festivities were suspended for the Spanish Civil War and subsequent national events, they were revived in 1981 and have become a tourist draw and major event since then. The festivities are known as Els Enfarinats in Valencian, the local language closely tied to Catalan. In Spanish, its known as the fiesta of Los Enharinados, loosely translated as The Flour-Covered Ones. (Enharinar is the verb for coating something with flour, known as harina.) The festivities traditionally begin around 8 a.m. when participants in mock military attire stage a fake coup and take control of the town and enact all sorts of crazy ordinances in program called New Justice - Justà ­cia Nova in Catalan and Justicia Nueva in Spanish. Those who brake the pretend ordinances are fined, with the money going to worthy causes. Eventually, a massive fight ensues between the rulers and the opposition, a battle fought with flour, vegetables and other harmless projectiles. Festive dancing marks the end of the battle. Other Observances of Inocentes Several other regions have distinctive ways of observing the Day of the Holy Innocents. For example, various celebrations are widespread in Venezuela, where many of the celebrations mix European and indigenous traditions. In some areas, for example, festivities are held in which children dress as the elderly, the elderly dress as children, leaders dressed in tattered clothing, men dress as women and women as men and so on, and many wear colorful masks, headgear, and/or costumers. Names or some of these festivals include the festival of the locos and locaà ­nas (the crazy ones). Although Dec. 28 is not an officially observed holiday, some of the festivities can last the entire day. Another noteworthy celebration takes place in El Salvador, where the largest observance of the day takes place in Antiguo Cuscatln. Floats for a parade are adorned with pictures of children representing those in the Biblical story. A street fair is also held. Key Takeaways In most Spanish-speaking countries, Dec. 28 is observed as the Dà ­a de los Santos Inocentes, or the Day of the Holy Innocents, commemorating the Biblical story of King Herod killing babies in Bethlehem.The day is observed in some areas much like April Fools Day is observed in the United States.Colorful celebrations are held in some other areas to observe the day.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Ethics, wk 6, forum Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethics, wk 6, forum - Essay Example They are not two opposite techniques that are against each other. If we analyze traditional policing techniques it is obvious that some of its practices are adopted by community policing. The different of the former from the latter is that the latter is broader in practice; while traditional policing is more reactive in nature. One thing that plays a vital role in community policing is interpersonal skills which definitely is a missing component in traditional policing. Interpersonal skills and oral communications are necessary components of community policing. A police officer who practices community policing must have the ability to develop rapport with citizens, so that trust can be built between community residents and the police. For example, one FTO wrote, "PT[2] is polite when speaking with citizens and suspects and is able to gather the necessary information to complete the investigation." (Chappell, 2007) During 2007, rate of violence and crime rises to a great extent in United States as compare to 2006. The rate rises to almost 1.1 percent in countries which were non-metropolitan and in different cities which has the population ranges between 10,000 till 24, 999. In metropolitan countries murder rates rises to 4.9 percent, in cities which has inhabitants for about 50,000 and 99,999 it raises to 3.2%. Burglary rates increases to 3.5 percent which definitely shows the need of proper strategy implemented by police to reduce crime. (Polite, 2010) There is no doubt in the fact the today’s crimes is complex as ever before. With the emerging crime rate, it is very obvious that traditional policing is not enough. Nowadays, police needs to be more active in the lives of the people they serve rather than just fight the wrong when it is committed. The strategies adopted by community policing is definitely going to take over the traditional policing efforts as now the scenario has